Some of us, many of us actually, dream that one day our species, that we call ourselves with some obvious sense of humor, Humanity will manage to attain an understanding of the physical laws of the universe that will allow us to leave this warm, cozy planet and roam the vastness of Space that surrounds us.
Others dream that one day, we on this planet can all live together in a world where all children are considered to be precious, life is venerated for its own sake, and none need suffer the ravages of curable illness and hunger. These two visions are not incompatible.
To our detriment, we still dwell within a fire-based civilization. Oh, it’s true that we’ve made many discoveries that have greatly improved the human condition and made at least a modest beginning toward the exploration of the little pocket of the galaxy that we inhabit. But when you think about it, we’re still in the Age of Fire. Sure, we have a worldwide electrical grid that brings marvelous productivity and the ability to create a clean, warm and relatively safe living environment. And we’ve built technical masterpieces that we call rockets that have enabled us to realistically assert our presence into the thin atmosphere that extends many miles outside the denser concentration of gasses that sustains us and gives us our weather.
But at the root of all of these accomplishments, the primary source that powers them all is Fire. Fire makes the thrust in the rockets, it makes the steam that generates our electricity. We make little fires inside of expandable sleeves that we call cylinders and jet engines that power all but a few of the vehicles that allow us to transport goods and ourselves around the surface of the planet for purposes both good and evil.
We need energy to survive.
Our advances in Science and Physics have initiated our exploration into other sources of energy to aid us in our quests. Our understanding of the equivalence of matter and energy, coupled with the discoveries of the properties and rules within the subatomic realm have allowed us to begin to harness the forces that control some of those entities that we can never see, but only sense. And although the track record for the uses of this newly discovered nuclear energy are mixed at best, one would have to argue that at least it’s a start in the movement away from the Age of Fire.
A better case can be made for our efforts to develop solar energy. Based on our understanding of the properties of materials and with theoretical input from Quantum Mechanics we have developed photovoltaic cells capable of converting radiant energy from the Sun directly into that most used energy currency, electricity. This new source of energy has its own issues and raises some of its own concerns, not the least of which is storage, but the development of this technology has come as close as we can to using an energy source to directly move electrons.
And in these two cases, and including the use of electricity as well, the development of the technology has come about as a result of new understandings of the forces that rule matter and the exploitation of a previously disregarded property of the interactions between matter and energy. Before the 18th century, the only known properties of electricity were lightning and static electricity generated by friction. Before 1930, no one knew that there was any such thing as a neutron. And while the photoelectric effect was discovered in the 1800’s, the first practical photoelectric cell wasn’t invented until 1954, well after Dr. Einstein created the theoretical basis for its operation.
Benjamin Franklin would have been quite surprised to find out what his little experiment regarding current flow has been able to allow us to do.
If we are ever to succeed at space travel, a completely new method for driving a spacecraft must be found. The limits of a chemical rocket thruster are rather obvious. For a rocket engine, one must carry enough fuel and oxidizer to provide a means for thrust and navigation for an entire trip, and since Newton’s laws and the physics of combustion dominate the chemical rocket thruster system, the fact is, using only that, we’ll be lucky to get to Mars and back. So much for Alpha Centauri.
If there is only one thing that everyone that reads this book would take with them, it is this:
There is neither an independent Time nor Distance. The ‘Time’ that we hold as a concept, as a special dimension really, does not, cannot exist in and of itself. And neither can any of the ‘Prime Axes’.
Each requires the other. And therefore, only velocity can be real.
If there is a second thing, it would be that there are no Real Numbers that are less than zero. There are particles that are directionally opposite, and charges and/or forces that are equal but in opposition to each other, but there are no real things that can have a number or value that is less than zero. It’s just impossible.
After those concepts are accepted, the geometry herein pretty well builds itself.
This book started out as an attempt to explain what a velocity based geometry might look like and how that could be used to provide a reasonable, new expression for Gravity and Light. The realization that it could explain the Equivalence Principle came along with the creation of the primary outline. But the insight that one might be able to use Coriolis to create a new generation of space thruster came as quite a surprise, and quite frankly, delayed the completion of this book. It was not really my intention to invent the Vortex Thruster.
The acceleration created by Coriolis, although small on a per rotation basis can be leveraged into a much larger force by simply increasing the rotational speed, and therefore, the acceleration. The author will leave it up to the reader to ascertain what that upper limit might be.
So here is one more thought: Dr. Einstein correctly assumed that the upper limit for radiation is the speed of light and, so far as we can prove, nothing can travel faster than that. But the assumption that matter compresses to a pancake and becomes an infinite mass is a product of the analysis done by Dr. Lorentz in his famous Lorentz Transformations (which might just as well be a trigonometric transformation instead of the square of the velocity ratio, but that’s a whole other story) which predicts what an observer who is static with respect to the motion might see. This is not necessarily the perspective of the travelling object.
It might be that someone in a vehicle, a spacecraft perhaps, could exceed the velocity of light by utilizing a source of acceleration (thrust) that does not rely on the surrounding space to provide reference as does the sources that are based on Newton’s Third Law.